Dust control measures are applicable to any construction site where there is the potential for air and water pollution from dust traveling across the landscape or through the air. Dust control includes practices used to reduce or prevent the surface and air transport of dust during construction. EPA’s recommendations is to clean and impact the least possible areas, if they are not going to be worked, however, we all know that sometimes due to schedules activities, the clearing and grubbing of the entire site is done all at once, although this might be different on large scale projects.
1. Mulch and Vegetation
May be applied to protect exposed soil from both wind and water erosion. Although this method is ‘green’ friendly, watering to your vegetation can become a headache if not coordinated properly. Can reduce wind erosion by up to 80 percent. Hydro-seeding is one of the dust control methods preferred by construction projects.
The most used alternative, due to its low cost of implementation and excellent results. Water should be applied at least three times a day, or more, depending on the atmospheric conditions. Also, you should be aware of the quantity of water applied, and prevent excess water that can cause erosion problems.
A control measure performed with chisel type plows on exposed soils. Tillage shall begin on the windward side of the site. Tillage is only applicable to flat areas. Roughening the soil can reduce soil losses by approximately 80 percent in some situations. Tilling should leave 6 in. (minimum)furrows, preferably perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction, to gain the greatest reduction in wind erosion, thus maximizing dust control methods.
Can be an effective practice for areas that do not receive vehicle traffic. Dry applied polymers must be initially watered for activation to be effective for dust control. This method, bonds the individual soil particles together and dries, it forms a flexible "crust" that strengthens the surface of the soil. Effectiveness of polymer stabilization methods ranges from 70 percent to 90 percent.
5. Tackifiers and Soil Stabilizers
This dust control method can create a fiber-to-seed-to-soil bond (without hardening) that reduces the need for re-seeding and minimizes soil erosion. During a wetting event, the polymer material absorbs water, which allows the tackifier to go back into solution. Upon drying, there is a new seal over the soil. Example products include Latex-based and Guar Gum.
Chloride retains moisture for prolonged periods helping you fighting against dust and erosion problems. The unique property of chlorides helps to hold down dust and stabilize unpaved road surfaces, creating smooth-riding roads that last.
A board fence, wind fence, sediment fence, or similar barrier can control air currents and blowing soil. All of these fences are normally constructed of wood. Perennial grass and stands of existing trees may also serve as wind barriers. Barriers prevent erosion by obstructing the wind near the ground and preventing the soil from blowing off site. Barriers shall be placed at right angles to prevailing wind currents at intervals of about 15 times the barrier height. Solid board fences, snow fences, burlap fences, crate walls, bales of hay and similar material can be used to control air currents and blown soil.
Stone can be an effective dust deterrent for construction roads and entrances or as a mulch in areas where vegetation cannot be established. In areas of high wind, small stones are not as effective as 8 inch stones.