Fire Prevention : Design of Fire Sprinkler Systems
Fire prevention systems can vary depending on the building being served or areas being protected. A fire sprinkler system is a way to protect life, properties and other items inside a building. National Codes in the construction industry requires them on different buildings depending on their use, size and capacity. There are plenty of alternatives of fire prevention systems and every method used should be consulted with the design engineer including the procedures on how to install them.
Fire Prevention: Automatic Sprinkler System
This fire prevention system is used widely in the construction industry. It consists of a series of automatic sprinkles attached or connected to a water piping system. This system containing water under pressure or water being pumped through the system. The system is normally triggered from a device when it detects a certain amount of smoke getting access to the building.
Fire Prevention: Carbon Dioxide System
This fire prevention method system is a clean, non-combustible, non-corrosive gas that works by diluting flammable mixtures of air and gas to proportion below their flammable limits. This system does not conduct power, and it is spread as a gas to the area protecting it from fire. This system is usually used in areas where highly volatile materials are being stored like petroleum facilities, paint warehouses and some laboratories.
Fire Prevention:Dry Chemical System:
This system is similar to the one described in the previous section. It includes a dry supply of chemical, and it spreads a gas, normally nitrogen. Detection devices, fixed piping and nozzles are used for spreading the dry chemical in the area preventing the fire from its propagation. This fire prevention system is normally applied in two ways: flooding and local flooding. Local flooding is used to content fire in isolated areas where there is no chance of further propagation.
Fire Prevention: Foam System
This fire prevention method is highly used in oil refineries, chemical plants, aircraft facilities, and solvent plants. The foam is formed by passing foam producing liquid and water through an agitation device. This system is lighter than flammable liquids and oils, and it floats on the surface of the liquid. By doing so it will form a continuous blanket protection separating flammable liquid from air supply, cutting the fire in an effective way.
Fire Prevention: Halon System
Halon is contained in a cylinder where an actuator is provided on the cylinder control valve. This system is operated by electric or by a pneumatic signal released when the fire starts or is perceived. Then the halon is released through nozzles distributed along the pipping arrangement.
Fire Prevention:Hydrant System
Either manually or automatically hydrants are located at a different point along a route. For a manual operation, a pump must be started after opening the valve to release the water. On the automatical system, the pump will start when the water valve is opened manually. This system is the regular one used in most buildings and can be used for several facilities nationwide due to its economic feasibility and ease of installation.
Fire Prevention: Waterspray System
There are several ways that we can group these systems:
The first one is designed to discharge coarse water spray with high velocity. There is such velocity that the water can reach the bottom of the flame and start extinguishing the fire. The second one is a fine water spray discharged at low velocity. This system allows cooling the burning surface acting slowly and then creating an inert vapor that will also help reducing the fire.
What fire prevention system you will use? There are many factors that you must analyze before making a selection, but remember to have it installed and have it functional at every moment, you never know when you are going to need it.